Washington — Police erred by not obtaining an extended search warrant before
attaching a tracking device to a drug suspect’s car, the Supreme
Court said in a unanimous ruling Monday.
A majority of justices said secretly placing the device and monitoring
the man’s movements for several weeks constituted a government "search"
and therefore the man’s constitutional rights were violated.
Four other justices also concluded the search was improper, but said it
was because the monthlong monitoring violated the suspect’s expectation
That difference of legal analysis may create further confusion among law
enforcement over when and for how long such high-tech operations can be
used, on both criminal suspects and the general public.
At issue was whether movement in a private vehicle on city streets is "public"
Growing sophistication of electronic devices to monitor the movements of
suspects made this issue ripe for review, since lower courts had disagreed
on when such surveillance is permissible without a warrant.
The devices send an electronic signal to a satellite, allowing real-time
plotting of someone’s whereabouts.
Antoine Jones was a co-owner of Levels, a Washington nightclub when he
was suspected of trafficking cocaine on the side. A joint FBI-D.C. police
team covertly attached a GPS device to his Jeep outside the terms of a warrant.
A warrant had been granted, but installation of the GPS device was authorized
by a judge only within 10 days and only in the District of Columbia. Agents
waited until the 11th day to secretly place it on the vehicle, and did
so in neighboring Maryland. Jones was then monitored for 28 days as he
drove around the area.
He was eventually tracked to a house, where law enforcement officers discovered
nearly 100 kilograms of the illegal narcotic, along with about $850,000
in cash. Jones was later sentenced to life in prison.
The court was being asked to decide whether such covert surveillance violated
the Fourth Amendment and whether in this case it should be considered
a "search," a "seizure," or both.
The justices agreed police violated Jones’ rights, but disagreed
on just why.
The Constitution’s Fourth Amendment says, "The right of the
people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against
unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated."
Antonin Scalia wrote for a five-vote majority that a person’s property
is legally sacred, and the government had to justify placing a GPS device
on the vehicle. Scalia said the electronic age does not change a centuries-old concept.
"The government physically occupied private property for the purpose
of obtaining information," said the ruling. "We have no doubt
that such a physical intrusion would have been considered a ‘search’
within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment when it was adopted."
Chief Justice John Roberts and Justices Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas
and Sonia Sotomayor agreed with the conclusions.
But a group of four justices led by Samuel Alito concluded the majority’s
reasoning was "artificial," and did not address larger legal
concerns of searches in the digital age, including GPS. He said the court
should have used this case to clarify the limits police monitoring of
wireless personal communication devices like mobile phones and Internet use.
"The availability and use of these and other devices will continue
to shape the average person’s expectations about the privacy of
his or her daily movements," Alito wrote. "In circumstances
involving dramatic technological change, the best solution to privacy
concerns may be legislative."
But the U.S. Congress and most states have not kept up with the times,
Alito said, leaving courts to sort out what level of privacy a citizen
He said in this case, four weeks of tracking was more than enough to justify
police getting a search warrant.
Alito was backed by Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Stephen Breyer, and Elena Kagan.
The justices have another pending case they may decide to tackle, from
an Oregon inmate who faced similar circumstances. Police there had attached
a GPS device to Juan Pineda-Moreno’s car while it was parked on
his property. Officers then tracked him to a remote marijuana field he
was cultivating. He was convicted and sentenced to more than four years
Unlike Jones, a federal appeals court in San Francisco ruled this was not
a "search" so no warrant was required to place the device on
Pineda-Moreno’s Jeep Cherokee. His conviction was upheld.
The justices have not yet taken any action on the Oregon appeal, perhaps
waiting to resolve the issue with Jones’ appeal from Washington.
The current case is U.S. v. Jones (10-1259).